End of chapter questions for Black History from 1865 and on. There are a total of 75 questions. Attached are the questions.
Chapter 12 Questions
1. What did freedom mean to ex-slaves? How did their priorities differ from those of African Americans who had been free before the Civil War?
Freedom meant celebration for being free. To former slave freedom meant that they would no longer be separated with their loved ones thus would stay together. Thus that were received freedom for the first time freedom meant that women would no longer be sexually abused. Freedom meant free movement without requesting permission. Freedom meant paid labor. Freedom meant right to own land, cultivate and live on the land. Freedom meant right to be heard by a judge or a jury. Freedom meant citizenship, right to vote and equal rights to the white people.
2. What did the former slaves and the former slaveholders want after emancipation? Were these desires realistic? How did former slaves and former slaveholders disagree after the end of slavery?
To many, former slave master emancipation was a traumatic experience there cases of former slave masters who died a short time after releasing their slaves. On the other hand to the slaves emancipation meant blunt reaction display to years of bondage. The elderly former slaves were apprehensive of the new freedom. The former slaves master and former slaves disagreed in that former slave’s masters wanted the former slaves to remain and work for them under pay but the former slave wanted to own land and reunite with their families.
3. Why did African Americans form separate churches, schools, and social organizations after the Civil War? What role did the black church play in the black community?
Because of segregation that required separate housing, education and other services for people of color. The black church developed political and community leaders in addition to offering spiritual refuge to those who needed it. The churches were free of white supervision.
4. How effective was the Freedmen’s Bureau? How successful was it in assisting ex-slaves to live in freedom?
The bureau did a lot of important work in many key areas especially protect the new rights of former slaves and help freed slaves achieve freedom. In the immediate aftermath of war the Bureau offered food in the form of food, shelter and medical care to freed slaves. Its mandate later expanded to include schools building, assisting freedmen to find jobs, negotiating labor contracts and managing confiscated lands.
5. Why did southern states enact black codes?
To allow African American certain rights such as legalized marriage, ownership of property. However these codes denied African American right to testify against white, serve in jury, militias, vote or begin a new job without previous employer approval.
6. Why did Radical Republicans object to President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction policies? Why did Congress impose its own Reconstruction policies?
Because they did not like his idea of allowing the southern into the union. The radical republican felt that the president was a sympathizer of the southern and a threat to their Reconstruction plans
7. Why were laws passed to enable black men to vote?
The voting act of 1965 is a landmark federal legislation that was designed to expand the protection of minority voting rights that is guaranteed by the fourteenth and fifteenth Amendment to the United States constitution. The act secured black men right to vote.
8. Why did black men gain the right to vote but not possession of land?
After the civil war White American did not feel that African American should be given economic and political equality. As much as they were okay with abolishing slavery they were not ready for serious land reforms that would have allowed African American right to own land.
9. Did congressional Reconstruction secure full equality for African Americans as American citizens?
No it failed to secure the full equality for African American. The 14th and 15th amendment said they were about due process under the law therefore giving African American right to vote but this did not happen country wide especially in the south which found ways to prevent African American right to vote by taxing votes. Also the amendment only allowed men to vote and not women.
Chapter 13 questions
1. What issues most concerned black political leaders during Reconstruction?
Black leader’s political leaders felt that there was a need to increase literacy and promote education among black people. Also the felt that they needed more economic empowerment for the African American. Land and civil rights were also some of the concerns.
2. What did black political leaders accomplish and fail to accomplish during Reconstruction? What contributed to their successes and failures?
During the decade of radical restoration 1867-1877 African American were granted by the congress rights to citizenship and right to vote as guaranteed in the 14th and 15th amendment. During this decade 2,000 African American held public office from regional and up to senate however they never achieved representation in government proportionate to their numbers.
3. Were black political leaders unqualified to hold office so soon after the end of slavery?
Yes because some of them were uneducated also the amendment unqualified black leaders so soon after the end of slavery.
4. To what extent did African Americans dominate southern politics during Reconstruction? Should this era be referred to as “Black Reconstruction”?
African out of the ten states were about 265 delegates of the 1000 men elected. Majority of the African American were delegates from Louisiana and Carolina. About 1,465 African American men held office in the south collectively and individual the African American leaders enjoyed political leverage however white Republican during Reconstruction dominated the politics of the day.
5. Why did the Republican Party fail to maintain control of southern state governments during Reconstruction?
The white majority in the south were determined to rid themselves off the republican and take back political power from African American thus voted for democrat candidates also republican who failed in nominations sought alternatives and run against republican candidates in the general election.
6. What was “redemption”? What happened when redemption occurred? What factors contributed to redemption?
Redemption for white American meant restoration of the white power control. The southern states were determined to restore conservative. By 1875 white American had regained authority in all former confederate state except Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina.
7. How and why did Reconstruction end?
Republican and democrat claimed victory in Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida the three southern states that had still not accepted white control. This compromise ended in dispute in 1877. As a result federal troops were withdrawn from the south and the republican administration in this states collapsed thus giving Democrats control. Redemption was now complete because democrat controlled each state in former confederate.
8. How effective was Reconstruction in assisting black people to move from slavery to freedom? How effective was it in restoring the southern states to the Union?
It reorganized the southern state after the civil war thus providing a readmitting the southern state back to the union. In addition the reconstruction defined the means through which the white and black American could live together in a non-slave society. Nevertheless the southern saw reconstruction as a humiliating and vengeful imposition and did not welcome it.
Chapter 14 questions
1. How were black people prevented from voting despite the Fifteenth Amendment?
Majority of the black people were unemployed and did not have money thus imposition of voting taxes made majority of them be unable to afford to vote.
2. How did white Americans justify segregation?
By arguing that they were separate but equal the following arguments were used during that time:
The segregation was not harmful to African American. Also according to white American in effort to equalize the two education system segregation was in good faith because African children due to years of slavery could not compete with white children in the same class. Also the constitution did not require children of African American and white American to attend the same schools.
3. Why did the South experience an epidemic of violence and lynching in the late nineteenth century?
Emancipation of the slave left a sour taste in many white southerners who were desperate to reassert control over African Americans. The lynching therefore was a tool of terror used to keep former slaves in fear and to subordinate to the white population.
4. Why didn’t more black people leave the South in this period?
Majority of African American living in South were poor and had limited power to move around. In addition there was no secure place to stay if they moved.
Chapter 15 questions
1. How and why did the agricultural and mechanical training that Hampton Institute and Tuskegee Institute offered gain so much support among both black and white people? Why did black colleges and universities emphasize learning trades and acquiring skills?
While the white student received education free, African American had to pay in order to receive the education they needed. Universities and Black colleges placed more emphasizes on acquiring skills and learning trade to help blacks have ability to fend for themselves and provide for their families.
2. How compatible was the educational philosophy of the late nineteenth century with the era’s racial ideology?
Education in that era mimicked a model of white supremacy and depicted blacks as not equal to white and struggled to do simple things such as getting proper education. Thus education philosophy of the late nineteenth century was compatible to the eras of racial ideology.
3. Of what value was an education for a black person in the 1890s or early 1900s? To what use could a black person put an education?
Education for African American in the 1890 or early 20th century was so that it could be used mostly agriculture and mechanical training.
4. What purpose did the black church serve? What were the strengths and weaknesses of the black church? What roles did black clergymen play in late nineteenth-century America?
Black churches were place of socializing and spiritual comfort. The strengths include helping the sick, the needy, women get into leadership positions and children get education. Weakness include failing to address the lynching and white supremacy at times. The clergymen played a crucial role as a threat to whites although often they did not advocate race relations.
5. How could a black soldier justify participating in wars against Native Americans, the Spanish, and the Filipinos? Why did black soldiers serve? How well did they serve?
Black soldier argued that they faced discrimination from each group thus justifying their actions. Also civilian life little opportunities for them and therefore serving in the army offered them better opportunity. Black soldiers were seen as lazy and treated with hostility but despite this they won a couple of battles.
6. Did black people derive any benefits from the expansion of segregation and Jim Crow?
No, separation was not equal as insinuated under the law. African were basically forced to work under low pay. Also the separation restricted education opportunities for blacks. Jim Crowe exaggerated the African American appearance and was a symbol of racist. As a result of the Jim Crowe law racial stereotypes about black people emerged.
7. Why did ragtime, jazz, the blues, and gospel emerge and become popular?
Ragtime, Jazz and blues emerged as fashionable black culture music. The blues were used as songs of the soul that narrated the hardship black people went through. These fashionable black culture music was used by slave to communicate to each other in the plantations which was a musical traditional carried from their homeland Africa. Jazz brought great boost music genre popularity as it was popularized during the abolishment of slavery time.
8. How did segregation affect amateur and professional athletics in the United States?
Segregation only affected amateur and professional athletics for a short while but caused great panic for white people. There were many myths about African American that they were lazy and less ambitious but black athletes proved difficulty to promote the stereotypes because of their success. Never the less segregation made it difficult for black athlete as they were separated.
Chapter 16 questions
1. How did the strategies promoted by Booker T. Washington differ from those of W. E. B. Du Bois and the NAACP? Which were more effective?
Booker T Washington strategy was focused on self-improvement and education on the other hand W.E.B. Du Bois strategy focused on attaining legal and political equality. Nevertheless they both agreed that segregation was wrong and they strategy were equally effective.
2. Assess Washington’s contributions to the advancement of black people.
He wanted people to work for the stuff they wanted and find a trade in doing this he aimed to remove the veil of ignorance from African American and focus towards progress. According to him improvement through education, industrial training and business ownership would naturally bring about equal rights.
3. How did middle-class and prosperous black people try to contribute to progress for their race? Were their efforts effective?
The middle class and prosperous black people started entering the realm of politics, establishing business and challenged common stereotypes being lazy, uninterested, lacking ambition and unsuccessful. They were effective in that they proved blacks could advance in life and be progressive.
4. Why did most African Americans support U.S. participation in World War I? Was that support justified?
The love for America and the opportunity to have a job that they needed to support their families. Participating in the war would also improve their social standing and legal rights as they would be able to prove their patriotism.
5. What factors contributed to race riots and violence in the World War I era?
When enrolling to the war African American had been promised equal citizenship rights however on returning the ruling class did not fulfil this promise reading to chaos erupting in major cities. Also many African soldiers were lynched in the south in their uniform which made returning soldiers organize themselves and start protecting African American. Also trade unions refused to recognize African workers as equal to white workers.
6. Why did many black people leave the South in the 1920s? Why didn’t this migration begin earlier or later?
They were not being treated fair and they saw opportunities in the north of working in the industries. Escape the blatant Jim Crow laws. Blacks were pushed from their rural homes and were escaping unfair judicial system in the south.
7. Why did migrants decide to leave or to stay?
The decided to leave because there were many jobs in the cities in the north and conditions in the south were becoming hostile to them they couldn’t sell they produce and were been harassed with Jim Crows laws.
Chapter 17 questions
1. To what extent, if any, had the intensity of white supremacy changed by the 1920s from what it had been two to three decades earlier?
The 1920s was a time of change in America with the insurgency of the Ku Klux Klan. This period an era of reconstruction and the resurgence revived the supremacist group. The number of supremacist grew to 100,000 and this time they not only targeted African American but also minority groups such as the Latino, Jews and catholic.
2. What examples of progress could leaders like W. E. B. Du Bois, James Weldon Johnson, A. Philip Randolph, and Marcus Garvey point to in the 1920s?
They demanded recognition and improved working conditions for African American they also made progress through organizations such as Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Furthermore Garvey established UNIA which established racial pride, African heritage, Christian faith and economic uplift. As a result Africa embraced their culture in music as entertainers of the Harlem Renaissance.
3. Why did so many African-American leaders reject Marcus Garvey?
He was of the view that that blacks should move back to Africa where they could be free rather than continue staying in America. He also felt that blacks in different continents should unite. He is also accused of supporting the Ku Klux clan the main nemesis of black people. His support for segregation was also part of why he was rejected.
Other black leaders did not embrace the radical solution of moving their race back to its ancestral homeland. W. E. B. Du Bois, leader of the NAACP, referred to Garvey as "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America." A. Philip Randolph, an important black labor leader, also opposed Garvey.
4. How did the black nationalism of the Universal Negro Improvement Association differ from the white nationalism of the Ku Klux Klan?
They differed in that the white nationalism of the Ku Klux Klan were violent while Black Nationalism of the universal Negro improvement were not violent.
5. What economic opportunities existed for African Americans who had migrated to northern cities?
Higher wages in industrial jobs
6. Why did the literary and artistic movement known as the Harlem Renaissance emerge?
It grew from the changes that had taken place in African American community since the abolishment of slavery and expansion to the north.
7. What was distinctive about black writers, artists, and musicians? Were their creative works essentially a part of American culture or separate from it?
They were part of a huge wave of the twentieth century events that shaped the black American culture and all Americans for all time. The black art movement of that time resisted traditional western influence and found a new way to present black experience.
8. Did African Americans have any reason to be optimistic by the late 1920s?
Yes because they had gained racial pride and more freedom which allowed them to be more accepted in the society. Therefore they lives changed in so many positive way in the 1920s.
Chapter 18 questions
1. Why did African Americans abandon their long association with the Republican Party in favor of the Democratic Party?
The felt that the Republican had become hostile to them by adopting a white backlash to voting and civil rights to build their party in the south. On the other hand, democrat had abandoned it support for legal segregation thus gaining more support from black voters.
2. How did black radicalism influence Roosevelt’s New Deal policies and programs?
African American people in 1930 initiated their own agenda in an effort to use every resource at their disposal to destroy the obstacles to racial justice and fight for equal opportunities. Roosevelt New Deal was more beneficial to the white than to black people. Nevertheless, Roosevelt government gave black people more voice to be held and air their grievances and they emerged from the depression more determined to fight for democracy.
3. How did black people respond to and survive the Great Depression? How did the experiences of black women during the Depression reflect their race, class, and gender status?
Legal programs were laid out to help challenge education inequality and voting exclusion in the south for black people. Also NAACP greatly advocated for African American civil rights. The party NAACP was funded by black women through membership drives and fund raising. Women such as Juanita Mitchell, Ella Baker, and Daisy Lampkin played crucial role in contouring depression effects.
4. How did the New Deal adversely affect black sharecroppers, tenants, and farmers? What were the political, social, and economic repercussions of the large-scale migration of African Americans out of the South during the 1930s?
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was meant to offer farmers protection through subsidies that limited production which enabled price stability. These theory allowed tenant farmers and sharecroppers to get part of the subsidies and also allowed dispensing of supplementary income to off season wageworkers by the new rural relief agencies.
5. What role did racism play in the Tuskegee experiment and the “Scottsboro Boys” case?
In this case nine African American had been accused of raping two white women. The ruling on this case was execution for the nine young men. However, the case was overturned as a result of international demonstration and it highlighted the racism that was going on in the American legal system and overturning the conviction.
6. Why were W. E. B. Du Bois’s editorials in the Crisis about segregation so divisive and explosive? How did black activists and scholars respond to the idea of voluntary self-segregation?
He stirred reader’s emotion by depicting African American as paying the ultimate price for white American workers to live a comfortable life. The black activist and scholars knew perfectly well that an attempt to revolution in America would see the nation unite as one to crush them thus the reason for agreeing to self-segregation.
Chapter 19 questions
1. What impact did the Great Depression and the Works Progress Administration have on the development of black religious institutions and a new black expressive culture?
The great depression caused government to intervene through relief programs such as Works Progress administration that offered solution to unemployment problem and also allowed artist to establish career path thus promoting black expressive culture.
2. What were some of the significant contributions that Black artists, writers, and filmmakers had on the development of urban popular culture in Chicago?
They employed artist and writers who found it difficult to find work.
3. What were some of the differences between Big Band and Bebop music?
Bebop style tempos are much faster than Big Band Swing. Bebop musician use melodies that are difficult to play and more intricate as compared to swing melodies. In other words Bebop is more complex than its forebear Big band swing.
4. Describe the roles that Black actors and actresses were restricted to in early Hollywood movies. Who were some of the major Hollywood Black stars?
The roles given to African American followed old stereotypes such as servants, comic slaves and loving Mammy. The stereotype perceived blacks as lazy, stupid, foolish, coward, submissive, childish, irresponsible, animal like and violent. Example of major black actors Sidney Poitier and Hattie McDaniel.
5. What were some of the unique cultural features of the Black Chicago Renaissance?
It produced artist and writers that were able to illuminate the dehumanizing effects of racial prejudice. They also gave rise to venerable community centers in Bronze Ville cultivated African-American cultural and intellectual pursuits
6. Discuss the accomplishment of major African American athletes during the 1930s and 1940s.
Majority of the athletes in this era were forced to join African teams because of racial segregation but despite severe racial, social and economic barriers that African athlete were subjected they shattered all expectations by rising above this challenges a good example Jackie Robinson.
Chapter 20 questions
1. How did World War II change the status of African Americans in the military? What were some of the consequences of so many black servicemen fighting in Europe against fascism and Nazism? How did the Tuskegee Airmen contribute to the Allied victory in Europe?
When black returned home from fighting racist regimes they were victimized to same sort of racist views. This blatant injustice motivated them to fight discrimination and use the skills learned in the military to look for work. The Tuskegee airmen fought from the air.
2. How did black women participate in the campaign to desegregate the U.S. military and in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade? How did Mabel Staupers win acceptance of black women into the military nurse’s corps?
By drawing attention to the unfairness within the United States Nurse Corp which denied the black nurses entry into the army and Navy Nurse Corps. The letter writing campaign were meant to convince the president to accept them.
3. What did the “Double V” campaign accomplish? How did African-American civilians support black servicemen? What institutional resources were African Americans able to marshal in their campaign against racism at home?
The black “Double V” campaign sought victory against racism on the home and foreign fronts.
4. How did World War II affect black workers in America? What was the significance of A. Philip Randolph’s March on Washington Movement, and how did President Roosevelt respond to it?
Black workers begun using the skills learned in the military to look for work and joining activism. Philip Randolph’s March on Washington Movement was significant in that the president gave an executive order 8802 which was a significant victory.
5. Why did the Cold War originate, and what was its significance for black activism? How did the World War II era promote the internationalization of African-American consciousness? How did the State Department attempt to downplay black dissent in America, and why?
There are several reason that led to the cold war such as the failing apart of the Soviet Union with America and Britain. Influence on black activist African American activism within the United Nations influenced Soviet Union propaganda attacking American democracy. .
6. Why did President Truman decide to desegregate the U.S. military?
Truman aimed to establish equality of treatment and opportunities in the military for all races thus by doing so he abolished all black units in military.
7. Explain why black men who returned from World War II often encountered a great deal of anger and violence from white neighbors and unequal treatment before the courts.
Because of their push to end of racial discrimination. By doing so they become a threat to white supremacy.
Chapter 21 questions
1. What roles did “ordinary” or local people play in the civil rights movement? Explain how children were able to contribute to the civil rights movement’s successes. How did children contribute to the struggle for social change?
Ordinary people such as Rosa Park played a huge role in civil right movement. Children too played a crucial role in civil right movement such as the 1960 sit in incidence at Woolworth store in Greensboro, North Carolina by four black college students at a segregated counter in protest of policy excluding blacks
2. Why did the federal government intervene in the civil rights movement? What were the major pieces of legislation enacted, and how did they dismantle legalized segregation?
The government intervened because it felt it needed to stop the crisis and to do so a civil right bill was needed. In addition the president was in full support of the desegregation on schools and public facilities. The civil right act of 1964 and the voting right of 1965 the two acts made African American equal to white American.
3. What were the ideologies, objectives, and tactics adopted by the major civil rights organizations and their leaders?
Nonviolent direct actions which were effective in challenging segregation in public accommodation. Other tactics were direct action such as disrupting status quo and making it difficult for those in power to ignore the issue of segregation.
4. Who were some of the individuals who have not been forgotten but are still engaged in the freedom struggle?
Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
5. What were the major successes and failures of the freedom movement? What intergenerational tensions plagued the movement? How did the movement transform American politics and society?
The success can be seen the signing of the civil right act into law in 1964. Failure included experiencing hostility from white people. The transformation for America politics and society is that President Kennedy hired more African American in his government.
Chapter 22 questions
1. What were the conditions that provoked African American rebellions in Watts, Newark, and Detroit in 1965–1967? What did these rebellions suggest about the value of the classic phase of the civil rights movement?
The arrest of two motorist who police suspected to be drunk. The gathered crowd felt police were motivated to arrest that two because of their race. The resident of Watts had endured years of political and economic isolation thus were rebelling to fight for their civil rights.
2. How did the visions and ideals, successes and failures of Martin Luther King, Jr. compare with those of Lyndon B. Johnson? Discuss the conflicts between them. Why were these men at odds with each other?
Both Martin Luther King and president Johnson played key roles in bring civil rights to African American. Both were pivotal in signing the civil right legislation in 1964-65. The conflict between the two was that Martin Luther King JR was opposed to the war.
3. What role did African Americans play in the Vietnam War?
They were integrated in the military and in high proportion which was in contrast to the previous wars where African American barely saw the conflict and were relegated to support roles. In Vietnam War they were in the front line.
4. In what ways can the presidency of Richard Nixon can be considered progressive? Which reforms initiated by President Johnson were supported by President Nixon after he took office? What was “the southern strategy”?
By creating an environmental protection agency, he also endorsed an amendment for equal right, banned gender discrimination and signed more legislation than all his predecessors. Southern strategy was a realignment of Republican Party to the white southern backlash to civil rights and thus weakening the new deal coalition.
5. What were the major ideological concerns of the artists of the Black Arts movement? To what extent did James Baldwin and Amiri Baraka have similar views about art, consciousness, aesthetics, and politics?
6. What reasons prevented African Americans from forming a third political party during the 1970s? Why were so many African Americans elected to political positions in state and federal governments?
7. Why were African Americans disappointed with the presidency of Jimmy Carter?
They felt that they sentiment were being ignored and his government was not African American issues seriously.