Being able to respond to question alone is not enough one needs to have adequate background knowledge related to the topics addressed in the question. As you go through take your time to go through your notes to have a deeper understanding.
1. Differentiate between growth and development?
Answer: Growth is the permanent increase in size; development is the differentiation of cells to improve quality.
2. List three characteristics of living organisms
Answer: irritability, nutrition/excretion, Gaseous exchange, respiration, reproduction, growth and development
3. Define the following ecological terms
a. Biomass: Total dry weight of organism at a particular trophic level.
b. Ecosystem: A self-sustaining system made up of biotic and abiotic factors interacting with each other.
c. Carrying capacity: Number of organism a particular area can comfortably support without depleting its resources.
4. a) Name the method that can be used to calculate the total number of fish in a pond
Answer: Capture and recapture method
b) State two adaptive features of the parasites Ascaris Lumbricoides
Body coat that is resistant to host enzymes
Larva is able to form a cyst to avoid attack by chemicals in the host
5. Define the term pollination
Answer: Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
6. State two factors which determine energy requirement in humans
Answer: Age, sex, body size, level of work or activity, basal metabolic rate
7. Give one function of each of the following reproductive organs
a. Testes: Formation of sperm/ production of sex hormones
b. Ovaries: Formation of ova/ production of sex hormones
8. State three characteristics of kingdom plantae
Practice both sexual and asexual reproduction
9. State three characteristics of an efficient respirator (gaseous exchange) surface.
Large surface area
|Insect pollinated flowers||Wind-pollinated flowers|
|With nectar||Dull colored corolla|
|Brightly colored corolla||Tiny flowers|
|Large flowers||Without nectar|
|Large sticky pollen grains||Small, light, feathery pollen grains|
|Short stamens||Long stamens|
|Small anthers firmly fixed onto filament||Large loosely attached anthers|
11. An organism was found to have the following characteristics:
Body covered with a hard exoskeleton made of chitin
Lays eggs which later hatch into young ones
Has compound eyes
Body is segmented
a. Name the phylum to which the organism belongs? Arthropoda
b. To which class does the organism belong? Insecta
c. Give an example of an organism that belongs to this class? Bee, moth, butterfly, cockroach or locust
12. a) Explain the meaning of the term double circulation in mammals
Answer: passage of blood through the heart before it goes back to the tissue
b) Name the two forms of circulation involved in double circulation: pulmonary circulation
13. Explain the meaning of the term test cross?
A cross carried out to determine the genotype of the spring showing the dominant character, homozygous or heterozygous
What is stimulus?
Change or variation in a specific environmental condition such as temperature
1. Draw and label a motor neurone?
1. Name the chromosomes which determine sex in human?
Answer: sex chromosomes
2. List three pieces of evidence for organic evolution?
Answer: fossil records
3. Briefly explain the meaning of the term apical dominance?
Answer: Increase in height or length of plant at the expense of lateral buds
4. a) Give one example of discontinuous variation?
Eye color or finger print
b) Explain the meaning and give one example of continuous variation
I) meaning: variation in which many intermediates exist between one extreme to the other.
II) Example: height, weight and skin color in humans
5. Give three differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Answer: Aerobic respiration requires oxygen, while anaerobic respiration does not
Aerobic respiration produces more energy than anaerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration takes place mainly in the mitochondria while anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm
6. State two factors which affect the rate of breathing in humans
7. List three pieces of evidence for organic evolution
8. Explain why Lamarck’s theory of inheritance was discarded?
Answer: Change due to use or disuse do not change the genotype and thus cannot be inherited
1. Name the structure labelled A-F in the following figure.
Answer: A: Glomerulus
B: Bowman’s capsule
C: Loop of Henle
D: Proximal convoluted tubule
E: Distal convoluted tubule
F: Collecting duct
1. In an experiment, a seedling was placed in a horizontal position and left for several days. Observation were made and the result was as shown in the figure below.
Briefly explain the result shown in Q
Answer: Roots requires very low concentration of auxins. Gravity pulls auxins to lower part. Upper part thus undergoes greater growth, therefore the root bends downwards
1. State two application of anaerobic respiration in industry
Answer: manufacture of alcoholic drinks
Production of organic acids
Synthesis of cheese, butter and yoghurt
2. Explain the necessity for locomotion in animals
Answer: For the animal to be able to search for food, reproductive mates and more suitable environmental factors
3. Name two functions of the mammalian ear
4. State three distinguishing features of the atlas bone of the vertebral column
Wing-like transverse processes
Absence of centrum
Presence of vertebral canals in transverse processes
5. Give three function of the endoskeleton
Protects organs such as heart and brain
Hold organs in place
1. Draw and label a finned fish
1. Name the process by which the nephron removes wastes and other material from blood into the Bowman’s capsule
The illustration below shows a human eye that is defective
a) Name the eye defect shown? Short-sightedness (myopia)
b) How would this defect be corrected? Concave (diverging) lens
34. Using arrows only, indicate the pathway of blood through the mammalian heart on the illustration below