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What is Chemistry and State Laboratory safety rules

By Outworkerpost Support  1 year, 2 months ago

chem labPhoto: chem lab

Everything you hear, see, smell, taste, and even touch involve chemistry and chemical matters. So what is chemistry?Chemistry is the study of how matter behaves and how one kind of substance can be changed into another. Chemistry can also be defined as the science of change. Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Chemistry concentrates on the properties of substances and the interactions between different types of matter, most reactions that involve electrons.

Pros of studying chemistry, or why study chemistry? Chemistry studying helps one understand the world. By understanding chemistry, one gets to see how things work, such as why laundry detergent works better in hot water or how baking soda works or why not all pain relievers work equally well on a headache. This means with chemistry knowledge. One makes educated choices about everyday products that you use.

Fields of study that apply chemistry? Science and medicine fields such as Chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers study chemistry. Doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, physical therapists, and veterinarians all take chemistry courses. Science teachers study chemistry. Firefighters and people who make fireworks learn about chemistry. So do truck drivers, plumbers, artists, hairdressers, and chefs.

What Do Chemists Do? Chemists work in a lab, a research environment, asking questions, and testing hypotheses with experiments. Also, chemists may work on a computer developing theories or models or predicting reactions. Some chemists do fieldwork. Others contribute advice on chemistry for projects. Some chemists write. Some chemists teach. The career options are extensive.

The chemistry laboratory

Unlike most subject chemistry is best learned in the laboratory carrying out experiment or investigations. As a result of experimenting, one can get answers. The experiment requires chemicals and apparatus that are stored in the laboratory. All experiments pose a severe risk to the experimenter, and care must be taken all the time.

 Laboratory safety rules

  • Follow instructions intelligently and carefully, noting all precautions.
  • Unauthorized experiments are prohibited for a reason, so only carry out approved experiments if you are a student. Do not play the mad scientist don’t haphazardly mix chemicals! Pay attention to the order in which chemicals are to be added to each other and do not deviate from the instructions. Even chemicals that mix to produce seemingly safe products should be handled carefully. For example, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide will give you saltwater, but the reaction could break your glassware or splash the reactants onto you if you aren't careful!
  • Unless directed to do so do not touch any chemicals with bare hands
  • When smelling a gas, fan a little of the vapor towards your nose by sweeping your hand over the top of the container.
  • The hot glass needs ample time to cool.
  • Before starting an experiment, ensure you can locate the fire extinguish, also use a towel to put any fire off.
  • Report accident or minor injuries to the lab technician
  • All persons must wear approved safety goggles at all times.
  • Throw all solids and papers to be discarded into a waste bin.
  • Check reagent bottle label keenly before removing any of its contents.
  • Avoid spillage
  •  
  • Dress appropriately.

 

Pictograms and Hazards

GHS02: FlammableGHS02: Flammable
  • Flammable gases, category 1
  • Flammable aerosols, categories 1, 2
  • Flammable liquids, categories 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Flammable solids, categories 1, 2
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types B, C, D, E, F
  • Pyrophoric liquids, category 1
  • Pyrophoric solids, category 1
  • Combustible solids, category 3
  • Combustible liquids, category 3
  • Self-heating substances and mixtures, categories 1, 2
  • Substances and mixtures, which in contact with water, emit flammable gases, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Organic peroxides, types B, C, D, E, F
GHS01: Explosive
  • Unstable explosives
  • Explosives, divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types A, B
  • Organic peroxides, types A, B

GHS03: Oxidizing

  • Oxidizing gases, category 1
  • Oxidizing liquids, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Oxidizing solids, categories 1, 2, 3

 GHS05: Corrosive

  • Corrosive to metals, category 1

GHS04: Compressed Gas: 

  • Compressed gases
  • Liquefied gases
  • Refrigerated liquefied gases
  • Dissolved gases

 GHS06: Toxic

Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), categories 1, 2, 3

 GHS07: Harmful 

  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4
  • Skin irritation, categories 2, 3
  • Eye irritation, category 2A
  • Skin sensitization, category 1
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, category 3
    • Respiratory tract irritation
    • Narcotic effects

Not used with the "skull and crossbones" pictogram

  • for skin or eye irritation if:
    • the "corrosion" pictogram also appears

the "health hazard" pictogram is used to indicate respiratory sensitization

 GHS08: Health hazard

  • Respiratory sensitization, category 1
  • Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Carcinogenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following repeated exposure, categories 1, 2

Aspiration hazard, categories 1, 2

 GHS05: Corrosive 

  • Explosives, divisions 1.5, 1.6
  • Flammable gases, category 2
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, type G
  • Organic peroxides, type G
  • Skin corrosion, categories 1A, 1B, 1C
  • Serious eye damage, category 1

 

GHS09: Environmental hazard

  • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment, category 1
  • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 1, 2
  • Environmental toxicity, categories 1, 2

 Divisions 1.1–1.3

Explosives

Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard

Note

The asterisks are replaced by the class number and compatibility code

 

 Division 1.5 

Explosives

Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.4 

Explosives

Substances and articles which are classified as explosives but which present no significant hazard

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

 Division 1.6 

Explosives

No hazard statement

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

 Division 2.1

Flammable gases

Gases which at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa:

 

  • are ignitable when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
  • Have a flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage points regardless of the lower flammable limit.

Division 2.2 

Non-flammable non-toxic gases

Gases which:

 

  • are asphyxiant – gases which dilute or replace the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or
  • are oxidizing – gases which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does; or
  • do not come under the other divisions;
 Division 2.3  Toxic gases

Gases which:

  • are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to pose a hazard to health; or
are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because they have an LC50 value equal to or less than 5000 ml/m3 (ppm).

 Class 3 

Flammable liquids

 

Liquids which have a flash point of less than 60 °C and which are capable of sustaining combustion

 

 

 Division 4.1 

Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives

Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which may explode if not diluted sufficiently

 Division 4.2

Substances liable to spontaneous combustion

Substances which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire

 Division 4.3

 Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases

Substances which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities

 Division 5.1 

Oxidizing substances

Substances which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other material

 Division 6.1 

Toxic substances

Substances with an LD50 value ≤ 300 mg/kg (oral) or ≤ 1000 mg/kg (dermal) or an LC50 value ≤ 4000 ml/m3 (inhalation of dusts or mists)

 Division 5.2 

Organic peroxides

 

Organic substances which contain the bivalent –O–O– structure and may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals

 

 Class 8

Corrosive substances

Substances which:

  • cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue on exposure time of less than 4 hours; or

exhibit a corrosion rate of more than 6.25 mm per year on either steel or aluminium surfaces at 55 °C

 

 

Chemistry lab apparatus

The three common sources of heat in a laboratory

  • Burners
  • Heating Mantles
  • Heater
Busen BurnerTypes of flames

 

Parts of a bunsen burner

 

The barrel (or chimney) either has one or two holes near the bottom

The collar (or air regulator) is a metallic ring with one or two holes of the same size  as those in the barrel. It shows the path air follows.

A small jet though which the gas enters the barrel.

A heavy base with an inlet tube for gas which also is a stand for the burner.